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Research

Dynamic Taping is grounded in research.

The aim of any application develops from an in-depth knowledge of the influence of load, positioning, a particular movement pattern or fear of movement on function, performance, pain and recovery/repair based on accurate assessment and sound clinical reasoning, interpretation and application of research across the relevant sciences.

  • Research specific to Dynamic Taping is emerging and is presented here. It is imperative that when reviewing literature relating to a product to ensure that the product is used in an appropriate and homogenous population (i.e. they all need the same application), is applied correctly and consistent with the methodology, and the outcome measures are also appropriate. In this way, the efficacy of the application for that population is evaluated rather than simply the poor quality of the methodology of the research project.
  • The below studies are a combination of independent published papers and preliminary investigations/thesis projects that have been sent to us as well as some in house studies that we have conducted to provide some direction to researchers.  Further, larger and more robust studies are also under way and we look forward to providing that information as it becomes available.
  • Please use these studies to aid in determining your aim and indications for Dynamic Taping.  They are not meant to be prescriptive. Not every female volleyballer with patella tendinopathy needs to be taped at the hip. They might not exhibit increased high frontal plane knee projection angle or it might not be a contributor to their presentation.   Remember, when treating patients, it is always n = 1. A group effect from a research paper might not apply to your athlete or patient. The research must be combined with patient specific factors, situation specific factors and clinical expertise of the practitioner (Sackett, 1996).

If you are looking to conduct research specific to Dynamic Taping, please contact us as we are happy to discuss research methodology or provide insights into various applications based on our clinical experience.

1. Bittencourt N, Leite M, Zuin A, et al DYNAMIC TAPING AND HIGH FRONTAL PLANE KNEE PROJECTION ANGLE IN FEMALE VOLLEYBALL ATHLETES Br J Sports Med 2017; 51:297-298.

This study which was presented at the International Olympic Committee Injury Prevention ConferenceHip Closure Dynamic Tape in 2017 evaluated the effect of  a hip extension, abduction and external rotation Dynamic Taping technique on high frontal plane knee projection angle in elite female volleyballers during a single leg squat.

Results showed that 10 of 18 athletes had high FPKPA (>8o) and the T-test revealed statistical difference pre and post DT (p<0,0001). Pre DT Mean of FPKPA was 10.5ºand Post DT mean was 5.4º.

While larger studies including a group who are taped in the lengthened position will reveal more about the mechanisms involved (and have been conducted elsewhere showing the effect only occurs when taped in the shortened position), this study provides preliminary support for use of Dynamic Tape to address high frontal plane knee projection angle when indicated.  This may have relevance in some athletes or patients post ACL injury, patella tendinopathy, PFPS, greater trochanteric pain syndrome or pelvic girdle pain subjects with poor force transfer capacity through the SIJ for example.

An example of this technique is shown adjacent.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097372.36

2. Pereira A, Ribeiro V, Silva R, Zuin A DYNAMIC TAPE IN ELITE VOLLEYBALLERS WITH INSTABILITY POST LATERAL ANKLE SPRAIN (original in Portuguese). Revista Movimenta 2017; (4) 895.

This study was presented at the VIII Congress Brasileiro e vi Congress Internacional da Sociedade Nacional de Fisioterapia Esportiva (SONAFE) in 2017. 20 elite male volleyballers between 16 and 22 years of age with a history of lateral ankle sprain were investigated. Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and Y Balance Test were evaluated with and without Dynamic Taping.

Dynamic Taping resulted in significant improvement in all measures.  Again, it is difficult to draw conclusions regarding the mechanism behind the improvement with this intervention as a sham group was not investigated.  Taping in the lengthened position results in the same skin contact, same appearance (and likely expectation) but without the possibility of the same mechanical effect and can therefore help determine whether the mechanism is largely mechanical or more related to skin contact, expectation or some other neurophysiological mechanism.

www.revista.ueg.br/index.php/movimenta/issue/view/396

3. Case Report - Denver, CO - Keith Cronin & Ryan Kendrick

This single case report does however help to shed some light on the mechanism. In this case, a subject with neurological deficit resulting in a partial foot drop (very weak dorsiflexion and eversion) was examined using the BodiTrak system which evaluates centre of pressure. He was asked to do a single leg standing task with eyes closed.BodyTrak Study

In the untaped condition (left) the COP measurement shows that the subject tries to maintain a neutral COP. As soon as his COP moves slightly laterally ( to the left of the centre line and into inversion), he does not have the strength to correct and loses his balance.  In the taped condition (right), the subject actually rests in slight inversion (COP is slightly to the left of the centreline) which would normally result in a loss of balance. With the tape in situ he is able to rest on the tape and even correct using the recoil if he goes into inversion improving his single leg standing time significantly.

Unfortunately due to time constraints, he was not tested in the lengthened position but the neurological deficit would suggest that any mechanism is likely to be mechanical. This is illustrated further in the wrist case study below where the nerve has been transected with a knife so the only possible mechanism is a mechanical one.

4. Case Report – Romania – Toma Vasilescu
This clinical case report investigates the effect of Dynamic Taping on a subject with Radial and Ulnar Nerve transection due to a knife injury. In this case there is no possibility of facilitating muscle activity as the nerves are not in tact. What we do see however is an immediate change in position and motion and consequently function due to the strong resistance, recoil and elongation of Dynamic Tape. Of course, this will not accelerate the nerve regeneration but in addition to the immediate functional improvement and its benefits on activities of daily living, state of mind etc., the results of this application may help to maintain range of motion and reduce swelling. As some return occurs, the patient will be practisinga more correct movement pattern rather than compensatory patterns when there is insufficient strength to move correctly, and this could result in better movement outcomes. Unfortunately due to time constraints, he was not tested in the lengthened position but the neurological deficit would suggest that any mechanism is likely to be mechanical. This is illustrated further in the wrist case study below where the nerve has been transected with a knife so the only possible mechanism is a mechanical one. The ideal technique would address both wrist and fingers simultaneously to allow for a functional grasp. These two videos, however, show the targeted mechanical effect resulting from the application of the tape.
5. Robinson N, Spratford W, Gaida J, Fearon A. Does Dynamic Tape Alter Gait and Reduce Pain in Women with Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome? A Double-Blind Randomised Controlled Trial

Nicole Robinson recently won the ‘Best New Investigator Award’ from Sports Medicine Australia ACT, Australian Physiotherapy Association (ACT branch) ‘Best Student Paper’ and ‘Best Overall Paper’ for this well-conducted study that investigated the effect of Dynamic Taping on a Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome (GTPS) population.

This paper is due for publication shortly and we will then be able to provide more details of the results. This paper overcomes some of the limitations mentioned in earlier studies and helps to dissect out the mechanisms further.

View Article

 

6. De la Cruz Torres B, Albornoz Cabello M, Espejo Antúnez L. Immediate effect of Dynamic Tape®on external torsion tibial clinically painful in a football player. A case report. Rev Andal Med Deporte. 2016; 9(1):50–53

This study looked at kinematics and tensio-myography in a.Tibial Torsion Dynamic Tape
footballer with lower extremity pain believed to be influenced by the observed external tibial torsion.


Dynamic Taping was applied to address this.Thigh-foot angle and a 55% reduction in pain was observed, however this could have been a function of time. No reference is made to how long the pain had been present prior to the intervention.

Interestingly, thigh-foot angle reduced from 20º to 2.5º and the muscles involved with external rotation the shank showed changes consistent with a reduction in stiffness and activity and those associated with external rotation of the femur (relative internal rotation of the tibia) showed an increase in strength/activity/stiffness.

From this study we cannot conclude that the changes in kinematics and muscle activity were directly responsible for the change in pain nor be definitive about the mechanism behind the observed kinematic changes but to say that the application of Dynamic Tape resulted in marked changes in movement and muscle function.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ramd.2014.10.072

7. Welch L, The Effects of Dynamic Tape on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness within the Hamstring Complex. University of Chichester Institute of Sport, 2018.

This study investigated the effect of applying one piece of 5cm wide Dynamic Tape to resist knee extension (in order to reduce eccentric demand on the hamstrings) prior to a DOMS inducing eccentric loading protocol using the cybex. Pressure Pain Thresholds, Muscle Girth and Range of Motion were measured. The procedure was repeated with taping on the contralateral limb the week later. Dynamic Taping was show to reduce/prevent the changes associated with DOMS that were exhibited in the untaped limbs. 

This study only had 10 subjects and did not have a sham tape group who were taped in a lengthened position such that there was no deceleration of knee extension possible via the tape so it is not possible to say that the effect is due to a change in kinetics resulting from the external application of force resulting in a flexion moment at the knee.

A further, larger and more robust study to answer these questions and provide a clearer understanding of the mechanisms is planned however this study provides preliminary evidence that by contributing force with Dynamic Tape, sufficient reduction in work requirements resulted in the taped limb to prevent the onset of DOMS. This was also with only a single layer of 5cm tape. PowerBands or more comprehensive techniques might be indicated for muscle strains and tendinopathies to increase the amount of unloading, particular in transition stages during rehabilitation were an increase in rate of loading and magnitude of loading occur and re-injury risk is higher e.g. starting to kick a ball hard or increasing speed of running.

* Images have be reproduced with permission from the original study author

8. Evans L, AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC TAPE ON TIME TO STABILISATION, FOOT LENGTH, FOOT WIDTH AND NAVICULAR DROP IN ATHLETES. 2018 University of the West of England, Hartpury College. Thesis provided

This preliminary study looked at the effect of Dynamic Taping on foot length, foot width and navicular drop. It also looked at time to stabilisation (TTS) following a counter-movement jump as an indication of any potentially beneficial or detrimental effects of taping in this way with regards to functional stability.

The results showed that Dynamic Taping significantly influenced foot length, foot width and navicular drop compared with no tape.  Sham tape (Dynamic Tape applied in the lengthened position) did not produce significant changes.   TTS remained the same. This is an important finding as clinicians are often concerned that this taping application which effectively supinates the foot may lead to increased risk of ankle inversion injury.  This preliminary study would suggest that this is unlikely however alternative applications exist and would be recommended in athletes who have a past history of ankle sprain or instability or are performing high risk activities.  The alternative techniques still aim to elevate the medial and lateral longitudinal arches and the transverse arch to decelerate the navicular drop but do not target the rearfoot position like the technique used in this study.

Larger, more robust studies are required to validate these findings however this study does add support to our own in-house research which has shown that when taped correctly, navicular height changes in weight bearing of 5-10mm are common.  These do not occur when taped in the lengthened position with no tension, again suggesting a mechanical mechanisms (which can be immediately seen, felt and measured when applied correctly).  Please contact us if you would like to obtain the full white papers that we produced.

Furthermore, more comprehensive techniques can be used if required and clinical evidence would suggest that these result in greater and longer lasting effects.

An example of the arch support technique used in this study. Note that the resting position changes if the technique is applied correctly.  The 1st MTP joint should be in flexion, the calcaneum inverted and the metatarsals should be convex on the dorsal of the foot.  If these changes are not present in non weight bearing, the technique is unlikely to be applying a genuine force into the system so cannot affect kinetics let alone the kinematic changes reported in this study.

9. Plantar Pressures with Arch Support Taping

In further support of the technique above, this case was supplied to us from a clinician in the USA. The subject was suffering with pain in the region of the 2nd MTP joint with a history of Moreton’s Toe and surgery. The arch support technique resulted in a measurable reduction in loading through the symptomatic region.

Mechanical Effect – pressure changes in weight bearing with the arch support technique.  In this case it has reduced weight bearing on the medial aspect of the forefoot, particularly the first and second MTP joints as evidenced by the reduction in signal intensity on the medial forefoot of the right foot (taped) of the left pairing when compared to the right pairing. Similarly, an increase in weight bearing is noted laterally on the taped foot (right) in the left pairing when compared to the untaped version (right pairing). 

10. Dogan FE,THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TAPING TECHNIQUES TO LOWER EXTREMITY JUMPING PERFORMANCE AND DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL, 2015 Gazi University Institute of Health Sciences

This Masters Thesis project was provided to us.  It investigated the effect of Kinesiotaping, Dynamic Taping and a Placebo Taping (using a rigid athletic tape) compared with no taping on dynamic balance and jump performance in 24 male professional soccer players.

The results showed that Dynamic Taping increased reach distances in the Star Excursion Balance Test when compared to all other groups.  There were no significant differences when the other conditions were compared with each other.  Furthermore, Dynamic Taping was the only one to show a significant improvement in single leg hop for distance compared with no tape. 

 Previous studies have reported mixed results in regards to detrimental effects on performance – generally worse or no change.  This is the first study that we have seen that increased performance.  The technique used was also very light compared with what we generally recommend and has far less of a force closure component to it however it did look to apply a resistance to inversion and a recoil into eversion. Dynamic Tape does allow normal movement to occur during the loading or wind up phase whereas a rigid tape may impact this negatively. However, the mechanism behind the improved performance is not fully elucidated in this study.  The kinesiotaping application actually covered more skin and therefore had more input into the system so this sort of neurophysiological effect alone does not account for the difference. Briem et al showed an increase in mean muscle activity with a rigid tape when compared to kinesiotape so perhaps the stronger pulling of Dynamic Tape creates this effect.  It may simply be improved confidence and beliefs around self efficacy that aid the performance.  In the more comprehensive techniques, far more joint compression is obtained which would result in an increase in coefficient of friction at the articular surfaces and therefore an increase in stability via the force closure mechanism. The stronger recoil and spiralling application in this study would increase this slightly however as there was no sham Dynamic Taping technique (i.e. same orientation of tape but with no tension/compression), it is not possible to attribute the increase in performance to an increase in force closure. Further studies are required.

 A far more comprehensive technique than the one used in this study results in firm, triplanar compression to increase force closure and stability (LEFT).  When applied correctly, the rear foot should be resting in full eversion such that there is immediate and significant resistance and deceleration of inversion (RIGHT). This resistance increases with increasing velocity of the movement due to the viscoelastic properties of the tape. Normal movement however is preserved to allow the person to maintain normal balance strategies, accommodate to the ground surface and perform movements required for the sport.

11. Farias B B, Lumini J A. Os Efeitos da Aplicação de Dynamic Tape no Membro Inferior de Um Paciente com Sequelas de Acidente Vascular Encefálico – Estudo de Caso, 2015 Fernando Pessoa University

http://bdigital.ufp.pt/handle/10284/4765

This study looked at the effect of Dynamic Taping on gait and a range of other functional tasks in a stroke patient 5 years post stroke.

Dynamic Tape resulted in improved angular values and velocity measured during walking, Timed Up and Go Test improved from 18.4s to 13.9s, Four Square Step Test improved from 15.1s to 12.2 s, Functional Reach Test improved from 15cm to 17.5cm and Step up and down improved from 8.9s to 6.1s.

No research has been conducted to our knowledge on subjects early on in their rehabilitation to determine if there are any improvements in motor relearning. The aim of the application and indications for its use in these situations however are very much determined by the patient.  The aim is not to cure the foot drop but to improve function.  This may simply be to enable someone to walk outside on uneven ground with less risk of falls due to improved dorsiflexion and a more stable ankle. We were contacted by a gentlemen who wanted to walk his daughter down the aisle without the use of an AFO.  The aim of our treatment is not always to cure or to have lasting effects.  A patient centred approach is critical.

12. Sales, CR. (2013). Influência do Dynamic Tape na funcionalidade do quadríceps na dor não especifica do atleta de judô. Dissertação de Mestrado em Fisioterapia Desportiva apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Porto.

https://bdigital.ufp.pt/bitstream/10284/5488/1/DM_30710.pdf

37 Judo athletes with non-specific knee pain were evaluated for static and dynamic balance, strength, flexibility and pain. Volunteers were submitted to the Standing Stork Test (SST), Y Balance Test (YBT), Four Square Step Test (FSST), Single Leg Hop Test (SLHT), Lower Limb Flexion Test (TFMI) and Extension Members Test (TEMI). After the tests, they answered to the Numerical Pain Scale (END).

No significant differences were found for the SST test (p=0.6794), however the YBT, SLHT, TFMI, TEMI and END (p<0.0001), as well as the FSST test (p = 0.0026) showed significant statistical differences, suggesting that the implementation of DT produced positive effects on the performance of the athletes.

Dynamic Taping improved semi-dynamic and dynamic balance, flexibility and pain.

It must be noted here that applying the same technique to a cohort of subjects with ‘non specific’ knee pain does not follow our general recommendations.  Ideally, Dynamic Taping should be applied to address a deficit identified on assessment and demonstrated to be an important contributing factor in this patient (and ideally by the research).  For example, if quadriceps weakness is identified and poor ability to accept load onto the leg during a single leg squat or landing task is observed, then Dynamic Taping could be applied to aid in load acceptance and knee control which may reduce loading on sensitised or damaged structures responsible in part for the pain being experienced. Ideally, those structures, their state and the pain processes at play should also be identified.

Nevertheless, this study does show that assisting knee extension control and load reduction in this group has resulted in improved dynamic balance, pain and flexibility. This may then allow appropriate reintroduction of loading exercises to build sufficient capacity such that the taping is not required. Further studies comparing with Dynamic Tape applied in the lengthened position with no tension and with a more specific and homogenous subgroup of subjects would provide further insight into the mechanisms and appropriate indications and use of Dynamic Tape.

13. McNeill W, Pedersen C. Dynamic tape. Is it all about controlling load? J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2016 Jan; 20(1):179-188. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2015.12.009.

This article provides a nice overview of some of the research as well as the general principles of Dynamic Taping and how it differs from kinesiology taping and athletic taping.

OurDynamic Tape has been thoroughly tested and recommended by FICS.

The International Federation of Sports Chiropractic / Fédération Internationale de Chiropratique du Sport (FICS) is comprised of national chiropractic sports councils worldwide and individual members and has affiliations with international organizations within the chiropractic profession and the world of sports. The vision of FICS is:

Empowering Athletes to Maximal Performance…NATURALLY

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